The history of our flags - Iraq

Iraq

The creation of modern-day Iraq also has roots following the Great Arab Revolt(1916-1918) with Britain proposing the British Mandate of Mesopotamia in 1920. The Kingdom of Iraq (under British Administration) was born in 1921 with Faisal I, son of Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali being proclaimed king. 
The flag below was adopted from 1921-1924 using the Pan-Arab colours inspired from the flag of the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I. 



In 1924 the image of the triangle was removed in favor of a trapezoid with 2 stars being added as seen below with the 2 stars representing the 2 main people groups of the kingdom, the Arabs and the Kurds.



This flag remained in use during the Kingdom of Iraq’s independence from the United Kingdom in 1932. 
In 1958, Iraq and Jordan formed the Arab Federation under the rule of King Faisal II of Iraq and his cousin, King Hussein of Jordan.
Their goal was to unite their two Hashemite kingdoms in response to the formation of the United Arab Republic between Egypt and Syria. The flag below was used for this confederation:




The union only lasted 6 months after Faisal II was overthrown and executed in a military coup during the Iraqi Revolution of 1958 led by Abdel Karim Qassim. 
Once the Hashemite Monarchy was abolished, the new Republic of Iraq was established along with a new flag which was used 1959-1963.The Pan-Arab colours of black, white, green and red were still in use with the addition of a sun in the center. 



Along with the Pan-Arab colors representing the Arab majority, the yellow core of the sun is said to represent the Kurdish minority, while the red rays represent the Christian-Assyrian minority.


During the Ramadan Revolution of 1963, Qassim and his government were overthrown by the Ba’ath Party who adopted a new flag for Iraq. It was inspired off of the flag of the United Arab Republic (UAR) which was a short-lived union between Egypt and Syria (1958-1961). 


The UAR had a 2-star flag, one star representing Egypt while the other represented Syria. The new Iraqi flag added an extra star which symbolised the hopes of joining Egypt and Syria in a new Arab union. 



The next addition to the flag came in 1991 when Saddam Hussein added the takbir which translates to “God is Great” in his own handwriting.



After toppling Saddam Hussein and his regime during the Iraq War in 2003, a new flag was adopted the following year by changing Saddam Hussein’s handwriting of the takbir into one that is written in the Kufic script between the stars. 



In 2008 the current Iraqi flag was adopted, this time with the 3 stars removed due to their association with Saddam Hussein and the Ba’athist era.